The course of study
and syllabi for various degrees of the university shall be submitted
by the respective board of studies/Board of faculties to the academic
council and the syndicate for approval.Such courses and syllabi
shall become effective from the date of approval by the syndicate
or such other date as the syndicate may determine.
Introduction to the Universe, solar system and the Earth; Rotation of the earth; Gravity and Tides; Physical aspects of earthís internal structure (Radioactivity, Temperature, Pressure and density profiles, problems of high pressure shock wave experiments in geophysics). Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism.
Vector and Tensor analysis, Curvilinear Coordinates and multiple integrals, Fourier and Lap lace transforms, Matrices and Eigenvalue problems, complex variable and their applications, Legendre Polynomials and Bessel functions, solution of Lap lace equation in various coordinates boundary values.
Historical background of geology. Crust and its subdivisions. Introduction to crystallography. Physical properties and classification of minerals. Igneous activity. Introduction to rock forming silicate minerals. Rock cycle. Weathering, Mass wasting, Erosion and Transportation (work of rivers, wing, glaciers, marine features). Valley development. Drainage pattern. Karst topography. Volcanoes and landforms.
Maps, scales and their construction, Representation of direction (directions, True north, Magnetic north, Bearings), Representation of Relief (Contours, gradient, sections and profiles), Interpretation of land features from topographic maps (uniform slope, convex slope, concave slops, terraced slope, valley, spur, hill, ridge, cliff, plateau, saddle, escarpment, divide, gorge).
Use of clinometers, abney level, brunton, theodolite, alidade and level, Triangulation. Geological mapping by Brunton & Pace method, Plane table method. Geological maps and cross-sections. Graphical and stereographic methods. Field trip.
General description of the atmosphere, Solar and terrestrial radiation in the atmosphere. Atmospheric Thermodynamics and stability. Cloud Physics. Atmospheric electricity. Atmospheric dynamics. The Oceans (composition and structure, ocean currents. Atmosphere Ocean interactions, Wind-driven ocean circulation and the Ekman layer. Shallow water waves). Recent Development (Weather prediction and the turbulent structure of the atmosphere. Atmospheric and Ocean pollution. The nuclear winter).
Derivation of the Equations of electrostatics and Magnetostatics, boundary conditions, Multipoles. Electrostatics and Magnetostatics of macroscopic media, dielectrics steady currents, Electromagnetic induction.
Paulings rule, Ionic substitution, structural defects, stable and unstable minerals, Millerís Indices, Isomorphism and Psendomorphism. Silicate mineral groups. Magma, its nature and origin. Textures. Characteristics and classification of major rock types (Ultramafics and Ultrabasics, Mafics and Basics, Intermediates, Moderately silica-bearing, silica rich and silica deficient rocks). Metamorphic and Metasomatic rocks. Types of metamorphism. Metamorphic facies. Phase rule. ACF and AKF diagrams. Classification of sedimentary rocks. Textures and Structures. Geochemical dispersion and its parameters. Clarks of major elements found in lithosphere. Geochemistry of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere. Basic chemical thermodynamics. Basic geochemical prospecting techniques.
Study of crystal Models.
Recognition in hand specimens of Rock-forming and industrial minerals.
2) Various types of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Recognition of some minerals and rocks in thin-section. Identification of some minerals with the help of X-ray diffractograms.
Mathematical analysis of Seismological processes on the basis of Elastic Wave Theory. Body, Surface, Channel, Stonelay Waves and their analysis in earthquake seismology. Frequency, energy and geographical distribution of more important earthquakes. Source parameters and their determination. Composite fault plane solutions of earthquakes and their implications on the tectonics of the area.
Programming fundamentals. Analysis of geophysical/geological data (analoque to digital; sampling theorem; variance, regression and cluster analysis; trend surface, Least square methods). Time series and spectral analysis. Generation of digital filters. Linear and recurrent filters, filter performance. Wave shaping filters. Programming to process and interpret data.
Genral concepts of economic geology. Endogenous and exogenous processes of deposits formation, Classification of mineral deposits. Metallogeny. Introduction to Orc Microscopy. Important deposit of Pakistan. Nucleur minerals (their properties, types and genesis). Introduction to geothermal energy. Composition of Oil and Gas. Formation of Kerogen and source rocks. Migration and Accumulation of Oil. Reservoir and Caprocks, Traps. Well logs as applied to exploration for oil and gas. Oil/Gas fields of Pakistan. Organic and structural elements of coal-forming trees. Coalification process. Properties and Rank of coal. Rock types and Macerals. Classification of coal. Coalfields of Pakistan.
Fundamentals of Stratigraphy. Stratigraphic code of Pakistan. International code. Lithostratigraphy (Formal and Informal units, Procedure in establishing a formation, Lithologic correlation, Stratigraphic procedures). Biostratigraphy (Index fossils, range zone, Assemblage zone etc). Chronostratigraphy (concept of time, time units, origin of time scale). Geochronology. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Paleontology types of preservation, uses and classification of fossils. Introduction to important phyla of Stratigraphic record. Field Trip.
An Overview-including background, history, need of remote sensing. Recent developments in remote sensing. Electromagnetic spectrum, source and sensor. Physical terms and units, Radiometric terms and units. Thermal properties. Interaction of different wave-lengths with the earth’s surface, vegetation.
Films and cameras. Scale and corrections, displacement. Distance, area, height and slope measurements. Relation to topographic maps. Photo interpretation-drainage, vegetation, soils and rocks (with their structural attitude.
Aerial and Satellite Imagery
Multispectral scanners. Sideways-looking airborne radar. Introduction to Digital Image Processing and GIS. Introduction to Eth Resoce Satellites. Classification of landforms, land cover and land use. Field work.
Hydrological and geohydrological aspects of surface water and groundwater (Elements of hydrologic cycle and drainage basin, their evaluation). Geological aspects of groundwater. Mathematical treatment of groundwater movement. Groundwater Basin modeling. Pumping tests. Artificial recharge of wells. Electrical resistivity methodologies for basin mapping. Integrated well logging. Vertical electrical programmes of groundwater exploration.
Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam
University Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.